biber550 (biber550) wrote,
biber550
biber550

Слоны заморские, самобытные, но бумажные.

Побережье США имеет огромную протяженность. Это даже на карте можно разглядеть. Там же можно разглядеть, что это океанское побережье. Труднее разглядеть, что большая часть населения живет как раз в этой полосе. Соответственно флот для США имеет огромное значение. И как только экономика и экономические отношения дошли до должного уровня США занялись его строительством. С теорией у них тоже все было в порядке, поэтому броненосная линия у них начала быстро формироваться. И крейсера тоже начали появляться. Пробной войной была Испано-Американская. Как известно победная. Однако она же выявила явно недостаточные разведывательные возможности американского флота. Плюс к перелому 19/20 веков, у крейсерских сил выявилась новая обязанность- борьба с чужими и поддержка своих минных сил. Что в сплаве и породило понятие скаутинга и скаута.
В 1907 американский флот получил три крейсера-скаута типа Честер.

По сути являвшиеся слегка увеличенной калькой с британских скаутов.
Однако маневры флота показали, что крейсера получились слишком маленькими для океана. Весьма часты были случаи, что из за свежей погоды они не могли поддерживать даже скорость равную скорости старых ЭБРов.
Стало ясно, что скаут должен быть большим. Тем более что в условиях появления радио их не так уж много и требовалось. И закипела проектная работа. В это время флот насыщался дредноутами, поглощая огромные средства. Плюс создание минных флотилий. На крейсера денег просто не оставалось. Однако к 1914 году ситуация с крейсерами стала совсем не терпимой. Отправной точкой для новых проектов послужил вот этот

Однако он подвергся критике за малую скорость. После анализа было решно, что скауты должны превосходить самые быстрые корабли линии на 5узлов. Т.е. 30у британские ЛКр задали планку скорости в 35у.
В 1915 году был представлен на рассмотрение 31 проект скаутов. Всех возможных комбинаций- безбронных, с частичной защитой с усиленной броней. Первоначально вооружение виделось в виде батареи из 10ти-6" орудий. Однако решили, что это ни рыба не мясо- по миноносцам громоздко, по крейсерам слабо и дальше рассматривались миксы больших орудий и 5" противоминных.

--Thirty-one proposed designs for a "Scout Cruiser", a wide range of concepts explored in the so-called "Scout Cruiser Study" carried out during 1915, of which these 14 were dated April 1915:

S-584-050: Preliminary Design No.112 for a Scout Cruiser - April 1915. Drawing of a 10,500 ton ship with a main battery of ten 6-inch guns in single mounts and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was the first of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.

S-584-051: Preliminary Design No.113 for a Scout Cruiser - April 1915. Drawing of a 10,500 ton ship with a main battery of ten 6-inch guns in single mounts and a maximum speed of 32.5 knots. This plan was the second of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.
S-584-052: Preliminary Design No.114 for a Scout Cruiser - April 1915. Drawing of a 12,600 ton ship with a main battery of ten 6-inch guns in single mounts and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was the third of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.
S-584-053: Preliminary Design No.115 for a Scout Cruiser - April 1915. Drawing of a 12,600 ton ship with a main battery of four 12-inch guns in two twin mountings and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was the fourth of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.
S-584-054: Preliminary Design No.116 for a Scout Cruiser - April 1915. Drawing of a 13,750 ton ship with a main battery of ten 6-inch guns in single mounts and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was the fifth of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.
S-584-055: Preliminary Design No.117 for a Scout Cruiser - April 1915. Drawing of a 17,650 ton ship with a main battery of ten 6-inch guns in single mounts and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was the sixth of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.
S-584-056: Preliminary Design No.118 for a Scout Cruiser - April 1915. Drawing of a 14,350 ton ship with a main battery of four 12-inch guns in two twin turrets and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was the seventh of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.
S-584-057: Preliminary Design No.119 for a Scout Cruiser - April 1915. Drawing of a 18,200 ton ship with a main battery of four 12-inch guns in two twin turrets and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was the eighth of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.
S-584-058: Preliminary Design No.120 for a Scout Cruiser - April 1915. Drawing of a 22,850 ton ship with a main battery of four 12-inch guns in two twin turrets and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was the ninth of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.
S-584-059: Preliminary Design No.122 for a Scout Cruiser - April 1915. Drawing of a 16,250 ton ship with a main battery of two 14-inch guns in one twin turret forward and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was one of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.
S-584-060: Preliminary Design No.123 for a Scout Cruiser - April 1915. Drawing of a 20,500 ton ship with a main battery of two 14-inch guns in one twin turret forward and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was one of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.
S-584-061: Preliminary Design No.124 for a Scout Cruiser - April 1915. Drawing of a 15,500 ton ship with a main battery of four 14-inch guns in two twin turrets and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was one of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.
S-584-062: Preliminary Design No.125 for a Scout Cruiser - April 1915. Drawing of a 19,500 ton ship with a main battery of four 14-inch guns in two twin turrets and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was one of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.
S-584-063: Preliminary Design No.126 for a Scout Cruiser - April 26, 1915. Drawing of a 25,000 ton ship with a main battery of four 14-inch guns in two twin turrets and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was one of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.


--Thirty-one proposed designs for a "Scout Cruiser", a wide range of concepts explored in the so-called "Scout Cruiser Study" carried out during 1915, of which these 9 were dated May 1915:

S-584-064: Preliminary Design No.127 for a Scout Cruiser - May 1, 1915. Drawing of a 13,000 ton ship with a main battery of two 14-inch guns in two single turrets and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was one of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.
S-584-065: Preliminary Design No.135 for a Scout Cruiser - May 29, 1915. Drawing of a 16,000 ton ship with a main battery of four 16-inch guns in two twin turrets and a maximum speed of 32 knots. This plan was one of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.
S-584-066: Preliminary Design No.121 for a Scout Cruiser - May 1915. Drawing of a 12,650 ton ship with a main battery of two 14-inch guns in one twin turret forward and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was one of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.
S-584-067: Preliminary Design No.128 for a Scout Cruiser - May 1915. Drawing of a 16,500 ton ship with a main battery of two 14-inch guns in two single turrets and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was one of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.
S-584-068: Preliminary Design No.129 for a Scout Cruiser - May 1915. Drawing of a 20,850 ton ship with a main battery of two 14-inch guns in two single turrets and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was one of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.
S-584-069: Preliminary Design No.130 for a Scout Cruiser - May 1915. Drawing of a 16,500 ton ship with a main battery of four 16-inch guns in two twin turrets and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was one of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.
S-584-070: Preliminary Design No.131 for a Scout Cruiser - May 1915. Drawing of a 20,500 ton ship with a main battery of four 16-inch guns in two twin turrets and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was one of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.
S-584-071: Preliminary Design No.132 for a Scout Cruiser - May 1915. Drawing of a 26,800 ton ship with a main battery of four 16-inch guns in two twin turrets and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was one of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.


S-584-073: Preliminary Design No.134 for a Scout Cruiser - May 1915. Drawing of a 13,500 ton ship with a main battery of four 16-inch guns in two twin turrets and a maximum speed of 30 knots. This plan was one of a set of 31 preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. No ship was built to any of these designs.



--Thirty-one proposed designs for a "Scout Cruiser", a wide range of concepts explored in the so-called "Scout Cruiser Study" carried out during 1915, of which these 8 were dated between June and October 1915:

S-584-079: Preliminary Design Plan for a "Battle Scout" - June 1915. Preliminary Design No.141 for a 27,000 ton ship with a main battery of four 16-inch guns in two twin turrets and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was one of a series of preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. Such "Battle Scouts" were in effect small battle cruisers, but no ship was built to any of these designs.

S-584-080: Preliminary Design Plan for a "Light Cruiser" - June 23, 1915. Preliminary Design No.142 for a 4,000 ton ship with a battery of two 6-inch guns and eight 3-inch guns and a maximum speed of 30 knots. This plan followed an earlier, long series of preliminary designs emphasizing very large ships for transoceanic cruiser roles and provided instead a much smaller ship. No ship was built to this design, however.
S-584-083: Preliminary Design Plan for a "Battle Scout" - September 9, 1915. Preliminary Design No.144 for a 32,000 ton ship with a main battery of eight 14-inch guns in four twin turrets and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was one of a series of preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. Such "Battle Scouts" were in effect small battle cruisers. No ship was built to this design, but the later Lexington (Battle Cruiser # 1) class design was similar in hull layout as initially approved
.

S-584-084: Preliminary Design Plan for a "Scout Cruiser" - September 15, 1915. Preliminary Design No.146 for a 28,000 ton ship with a main battery of eight 10-inch guns in four twin turrets and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was one of a series of preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. This very large scout cruiser was in effect a small battle cruiser. No ship was built to this design.

S-584-088: Preliminary Design Plan for a Scout Cruiser - September 1915. Preliminary Design No.151 for a 8,000 ton ship with a battery of six 6-inch guns and two 3-inch guns and a maximum speed of 30 knots. This plan followed a long series of preliminary designs emphasizing very large ships for ocean cruiser roles and provided instead a much smaller ship. No ship was built to this design, however.
S-584-089: Preliminary Design Plan for a "Battle Scout" - September 1915. Preliminary Design No.150 for a 32,000 ton ship with a main battery of eight 14-inch guns in four twin turrets and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was one of a series of preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. Such "Battle Scouts" were in effect small battle cruisers. No ship was built to this design, but the later Lexington (Battle Cruiser # 1) class design was similar in hull layout.
S-584-090: Preliminary Design Plan for a "Battle Scout" - October 1915. Preliminary Design No.152 for a 32,000 ton ship with a main battery of eight 14-inch guns in two quadruple turrets and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was one of a series of preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. Such "Battle Scouts" were in effect small battle cruisers. No ship was built to this design.


S-584-091: Preliminary Design Plan for a "Battle Scout" - October 1915. Preliminary Design No.153 for a 32,000 ton ship with a main battery of eight 14-inch guns in two triple and one twin turrets and a maximum speed of 35 knots. This plan was one of a series of preliminary designs exploring tradeoffs in scout cruiser capabilities. Such "Battle Scouts" were in effect small battle cruisers. No ship was built to this design, but the later Lexington (Battle Cruiser # 1) class design was similar in hull layout.

К счастью для нас эти проекты доступны на сайте https://www.shipscribe.com/styles/S-584/albums/S584.htm
Как можно увидеть проектировщики перебрали все возможные варианты, были и проекты возврата ( No.151) к малым крейсерам-скаутам. Однако до серийной постройки дело так и не дошло. Проекты признали или неэффективными, либо слишком дорогими. Был сделан вывод, что лучшим большим скаутом является полноценный ЛКр. 144 и 150 проекты послужили основой для будущих лексингтонов. Которые тоже так и не построили в первоначальном классе.
Впрочем, особо жалеть о неудаче не пришлось- дальний скаутинг взяла на себя авиация, а ближний крейсера другого класса.
Но об этом в следущий раз.
Tags: Слоны Фишера, Флот., веселые картинки, война на море, генезис проектов., история, капшипы, крейсера, сказки на ночь, скаут
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